Home Karapinar, Turkey Identifying strategies: Stakeholder Workshop 1

Identifying strategies: Stakeholder Workshop 1 Print

The results of the first DESIRE stakeholder workshop held in Karapinar, Turkey, 26-28 December 2007.


In Karapinar

  • pastures are excessively grazed (sheep breeding is very common);
  • there is no planting of bush-tree perpendicular to the wind direction;
  • strip cropping systems are not applied;
  • soils are tilled in the direction of the land slope;
  • various crops (such as maize, sugar beet, sunflower and clover) which need much irrigation are grown by pumping groundwater as a free irrigation system;
  • fertility of fields and groundwater is decreasing and pastures are finished.


Disturbances identified in the water and biomass cycles

Farmers identified rainfall deficit and heavy exploitation of groundwater (mainly due to the use of inefficient surface flow irrigation) as the main disturbance in the water cycle. Lack of organic matter in the weak and thin soils is a significant factor in low water retention. Poor (or absent) vegetation cover affects soil water retention and promotes high evaporation rates.

The main causes of disturbances in the biomass cycle were regarded to be the arid climate, low soil productivity (due to lack of organic matter and nutrients), lack of vegetation cover due to low rainfall and high evaporation rates, and unmanaged grazing


Causes and effects of land degradation

Many causes of land degradation in the area are thought to be external factors such as arid climatic conditions and socio-economic factors (fragmentation of croplands, lack of enough and suitable subsidies, market pressure, higher input costs (mainly energy), lower incomes). Local agronomic factors were also named as causes subh as excessive inorganic fertilizer use, low organic matter content and deep soil tillage. Farmers think that the consequence of this process is less respect to soil-heavy exploitation of pasture lands, overuse of soil, lack of soil conservation techniques.



Socio-cultural, economic, political and legal constraints

Farmers altogether accept their laziness in individual reforestation initiatives. They cannot explain why they do not grow even some fruit trees in their garden boundaries where enough water is available. Some villagers mention mistaken beliefs such as that some wheat diseases are hosted by certain surrounding trees. Economic and political factors are always regarded by farmers as the main causes of their actual situation. The fluctuating, uncertain nature of crop markets, high income costs (oil, electricity, fertilizers, agricultural machines), shrinking of the agricultural population by new legislation, lack of suitable subsidies/wrong subsidies were thought to be important factors. Some farmers indicated the heavy  procedural difficulties in getting agricultural credit from state banks or farmer organisations.


Solutions already applied at the local level

At present local stakeholders have no clear understanding of how to prevent or mitigate land degradation in the area. Groundwater over use, for example, is already underway, but instead of changing crop patterns to those which are more suitable for drip irrigation, they are looking at drilling illegal boreholes. Nowadays there is significant financial support for adaptation and education about drip irrigation from central government. Free (or very cheap) soil analysis by GO and NGO, financial support for certain fodder crops and other solutions from governmental agencies.


Technologies / approaches for evaluation

  • Rotational grazing / Pasture management
  • Strip cropping / Crop production
  • Drip irrigation / Minimum water use

Outline of a strategy for sustainable land management

  • Rotational grazing on pasture area and improving grassland (protecting the pasture by fencing, education of farmers, foundation of local guarding assemblies)
  • Strip cropping perpendicular to dominant wind direction (determination of space in between and suitable crop types)
  • Extending the drip irrigation system (informing local stakeholders about the benefits of this technique as well as the way they can obtain bank credit).


More details ... download the full report and poster and see results and general conclusions from other study sites
 iconWP3.1 Stakeholder Workshop 1: Karapinar (report) (888.44 kB)

iconWP3.1 Stakeholder Workshop 1: Karapinar (results poster) (66.52 kB)

»Identifying strategies: Stakeholder Workshop 1 methodology and summary results from all study sites




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